Since the increase in popularity of continuous delivery (CD), there was an increase in the number of tools marketed as CD solutions. That's normal. It is only natural for software vendors to ride the waves. They need to sell, and there's nothing better to sell than whatever is popular at a given moment. Continuous delivery is one of those "popular" waves.
On the surface, there is nothing wrong with buying tools that solve problems. You have a problem, a vendor has a solution, you buy it, they earn money, and you have a good return on investment. Everybody wins, except when the tool does not do what it's supposed to do. That's when we run into issues.
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Welcome to practical guide to canary deployments. Unlike some other work that I did...tutorials, workshops, and so on and so forth, that were very focused on a single tool, this time I will focus more on a process.
We're going to try to figure out how to do canary deployments inside of Kubernetes. Because Kubernetes is everywhere now, I will assume that you are using Kubernetes. But outside of that, we are going to try to figure out which tools to use, but all serving as the process itself, not for the sake of learning a specific tool. And during that process, we are going to decide which tools to use and why to use them and the end result will be a fully operational canary deployments process that you will be able to plug into any CI/CD tool or any tool that orchestrates the lifecycle of your application.
So we will definitely choose some tools that we will use in a process.
And those tools will be revolving around Istio. I will explain why Istio a bit later.
So we will use Kubernetes and Istio for canary deployments, but the end result will be agnostic to the tool that will orchestrate your processes. We will most likely also have to choose one or two additional tools. Which tools we'll choose is yet to be discovered.
For now just think of this as being a practical guide to a specific process. And that process today is canary deployments in Kubernetes.
A while ago, we (Viktor Farcic and Darin Pope) thought it would be a good idea to add an out-of-the-box option to use canary deployments in Jenkins X. We should have finished it by now, and yet we did not even start working on it. Instead of just adding it to Jenkins X, we spent considerable time exploring the subject.
Let's paint a high-level picture of the continuous delivery pipeline. To be more precise, we'll draw a diagram instead of painting anything. But, before we dive into a continuous delivery diagram, we'll refresh our memory with the one we used before for describing continuous deployment.
The continuous deployment pipeline contains all the steps from pushing a commit to deploying and testing a release in production.
Continuous delivery removes one of the stages from the continuous deployment pipeline. We do NOT want to deploy a new release automatically. Instead, we want humans to decide whether a release should be upgraded in production. If it should, we need to decide when will that happen. Those (human) decisions are, in our case, happening as Git operations. We'll comment on them soon. For now, the important note is that the deploy stage is now removed from pipelines residing in application repositories. Continue reading →
Explaining continuous deployment (CDP) is easy. Implementing it is very hard, and the challenges are often hidden and unexpected. Depending on the maturity of your processes, architecture, and code, you might find out that the real problems do not lie in the code of a continuous deployment pipeline, but everywhere else. As a matter of fact, developing a pipeline is the easiest part. Continue reading →
The difference between continuous integration, delivery, and deployment is not in processes, but in the level of confidence we have in them.
The continuous deployment process is relatively easy to explain, even though implementation might get tricky. We'll split our requirements into two groups. We'll start with a discussion about the overall goals that should be applied to the whole process. To be more precise, we'll talk about what I consider non-negotiable requirements. Continue reading →
Soon after I started working on The DevOps 2.3 Toolkit: Kubernetes, I realized that a single book could only scratch the surface. Kubernetes is vast, and no single book can envelop even all the core components. If we add community projects, the scope becomes even more extensive. Then we need to include hosting vendors and different ways to set up and manage Kubernetes. That would inevitably lead us to third-party solutions like OpenShift, Rancher, and DockerEE, to name a few. It doesn't end there. We'd need to explore other types of community and third-party additions like those related to networking and storage. And don't forget the processes like, for example, continuous delivery and deployment. All those things could not be explored in a single book so The DevOps 2.3 Toolkit: Kubernetes ended up being an introduction to Kubernetes. It can serve as the base for exploring everything else.
The moment I published the last chapter of The DevOps 2.3 Toolkit: Kubernetes, I started working on the next material. A lot of ideas and tryouts came out of it. It took me a while until the subject and the form of the forthcoming book materialized. After a lot of consultation with the readers of the previous book, the decision was made to explore continuous delivery and deployment processes in a Kubernetes cluster. The high-level scope of the book you are reading right now was born. Continue reading →
Everyone wants to implement continuous delivery. After all, the benefits are too big to be ignored. Increase the speed of delivery, increase the quality, decrease the costs, free people to dedicate time on what brings value, and so on and so forth. Those improvements are like music to any decision maker. Especially if that person has a business background. If a tech geek can articulate the benefits continuous delivery brings to the table, when he asks a business representative for a budget, the response is almost always "Yes! Do it."
A continuous delivery project will start. Tests will be written. Builds will be scripted. Deployments will be automated. Everything will be tied into an automated pipeline and triggered on every commit. Everyone will enter a state of nirvana as soon as all that is done. There will be a huge inauguration party with a vice president having the honor to be the first one to press the button that will deploy the first release to production. Isn't that a glorious plan everyone should be proud of? Continue reading →
At the beginning of 2016, I published The DevOps 2.0 Toolkit. It took me a long time to finish it. Much longer than I imagined.
I started by writing blog posts in TechnologyConversations.com. They become popular and I received a lot of feedback. Through them, I clarified the idea behind the book. The goal was to provide a guide for those who want to implement DevOps practices and tools. At the same time, I did not want to write a material usable to any situation. I wanted to concentrate only on people that truly want to implement the latest and greatest practices. I hoped to make it go beyond the "traditional" DevOps. I wished to show that the DevOps movement matured and evolved over the years and that we needed a new name. A reset from the way DevOps is implemented in some organizations. Hence the name, The DevOps 2.0 Toolkit. Continue reading →